Arduino: Types and Features

In this article, I will share some information about the different models of Arduino that are used for various purposes. This is to provide references within the articles related to the process of my targeted project, following the basic introduction in the article Arduino: An Introduction to the Open-Source Electronics Platform.


Excluding the discontinued boards and the many alternative boards that are not officially certified by Arduino but based on Arduino, we can evaluate the boards that can be used basically under the following headings.

  1. Entry Level: Arduino Uno, Arduino 101, Arduino Pro, Arduino Pro Mini, Arduino Micro, Arduino Nano…
  2. Enhanced Features: Arduino Meda, Arduino Zero, Arduino Due…
  3. Internet of Things: Arduino Yún…
  4. Wearable Applications: Arduino Gemma, Lilypad Arduino…
  5. 3D Printers

According to the requirements of the applications I will be working on, I will proceed with Arduino UNO and Arduino Mega.

The Difference Between Arduino and Genuino

As the number of Arduino projects has increased exponentially over time and with the inclusion of Intel, which is working on similar projects and did not want to remain indifferent to the growing Maker movement, alternative series were launched under the name Genuino.

Arduino Genuino

These boards developed in collaboration between Arduino and Intel are based on the same size and standard pin layout (for example, Genuino 101 and Arduino Uno R3), but they offer higher performance by replacing the central ATmega328P processor with Intel Curie. For example, the chip that includes Quark SE 32-bit 32 MHz Pentium processor also includes Bluetooth LE Smart connection, internal speed sensor, and gyroscope in addition to higher performance. In addition, the boards, known as Arduino 101 throughout the United States, are called Genuino 101 in other places due to licensing issues.

Arduino UNO

One of the most preferred Arduino models, Arduino UNO, has an ATmega328 microcontroller developed by Atmel1. ATmega328, which can also be preferred in models such as Arduino Pro, LilyPad, Mini, and Nano, is part of the megaAVR2 series. You can see the features of the microcontroller in detail in the visual below.

Over time, the model, which started to be sold as Arduino Uno, Arduino Uno SMD, Arduino Uno R2, and finally Arduino Uno R3, has 14 digital input/output pins.

Arduino uno history

In addition to the 14 digital input/output pins, 6 of which can be used as PWM outputs, the Arduino Uno model also has 6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz crystal oscillator, USB connection, power jack (2.1mm), ICSP header, and a reset button on the board.

Arduino Mega

Arduino Mega, based on the ATmega2560, is one of the Arduino boards suitable for comprehensive projects, providing a high performance usage with 54 digital I/O pins, 14 of which can be used as PWM outputs. In addition, it has 16 analog inputs, 4 UART (serial port), 16 MHz crystal oscillator, USB connection, power jack, ICSP output, and a reset button. It is compatible with all shields designed for Arduino Duemilanove and Diecimila. Arduino Mega 25603 is an enhanced version of Arduino Mega.

Arduino mega model r3

The latest development model, R3, has all the features of the Arduino Mega and Mega 2560, and in addition:

  • The FTDI and ATmega8U2 chips used for USB programming and communication have been replaced with the ATmega16U2 chip. This chip enables much faster programming and data transfer.
  • USB drivers are no longer required for Linux and Mac operating systems. For Windows, simply installing the "inf" file that comes with the Arduino IDE is sufficient.
  • It can be recognized as a keyboard, mouse, or joystick.
  • It has an extra SDA and SCL pin each (located to the left of the AREF pin).
  • In the R3 development, new unnamed pins have been added next to the RESET and IOREF pins, which have no connection, and are for general use. The IOREF pin provides convenience for the power supply provided through the shield usage, which may be needed.

Other Arduino Models

I will continue to add details about other models as needed for specific usage. In brief, besides the ones I am interested in using, such as Arduino Yún, Arduino Lilypad, and Arduino 101, there are many other Arduino models that have a wide range of features and products, including retired models and new ones being developed. You can follow all the details about the Arduino project on the project's website

As for Turkish-language resources, I can recommend the following sources: